Innovation or Deviation: Exploring the Boundaries of Islamic Devotional Law.
Jurists who use bid'ah only as a normative term of indictment developed simultaneously the principle that the boundaries of ibaadaat are limited exclusively to acts that have explicit indications in the canonical sources. While this principle can be found in numerous ahaadith...the presence of important exceptions to this view by Umar ibn al-Khattab and al-Hasan al-Basri suggests that the lines were not as clear as the Hadith collectors maintained. Instead, this study suggests that the legal principle, "the basis of ibaadaat is prohibition," was developed and constructed by Maliki and Hanbali jurists over time. Indeed, the current scholarly assumption that this principle represents the consensus of jurists is a testament to the overwhelming influence of Ibn Taymiyyah and Shatibi upon modern scholars.